Information sciences

Refers to a concept for the use of linked data. It is based on the JSON format and extends this. With JSON-LD, data can be annotated for automatic exchange between web applications and web services, and properly used, data in JSON-LD can be expressed as Linked Data triples.
LRMOO, formerly known as FRBoo, is an extension, developed in collaboration with IFLA, for bibliographic information and library cataloguing. It provides a conceptual framework for describing bibliographic entities and their relationships in a structured manner by introducing classes, properties, and relationships that allow for the representation of bibliographic resources, such as books, articles, and other library materials, along with their authors, editions, and related works. LRMoo facilitates the organization and retrieval of bibliographic information by providing a consistent and standardized approach to cataloguing. It enables the modelling of complex relationships between different versions, translations, and editions of a work, as well as the association of works with their creators and subjects.
MARC is a standard and serialization format for representing bibliographic metadata, originally designed as a way of exchanging bibliographic records between library catalogs. Various different versions have been defined, mostly with national or regional scope, of which MARC 21 is probably the most widely used. There also exists an XML serialization of MARC 21, known as MARCXML.
The Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) is a bibliographic metadata standard implemented in XML. It reimplements a subset of the elements of MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) using language-based tags instead of numeric ones, and groups them somewhat differently. It is intended both as a simplified version of MARC 21 and as a richer alternative to Dublin Core for applications such as metadata syndication/harvesting and the documentation of digital information packages. It was developed in 2002 by the Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office along with a group of interested experts.