Digital libraries

CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) is a conceptual model used in cultural heritage to enable information integration. It provides definitions and a structured framework to describe concepts, relationships, and data used in cultural heritage documentation. The CIDOC CRM, developed and maintained over a period of more than 20 years, was initially proposed by the CIDOC Documentation Standards Working Group and is currently managed by the CIDOC CRM SIG, both of which are working groups of the CIDOC Council. In December 2006, it received official recognition as an ISO standard, and this status was reaffirmed in 2014 under the ISO 21127:2014 designation.
The Component Metadata Infrastructure provides a framework to create and use self-defined metadata formats. It relies on a modular model of so-called metadata components, which can be assembled together, to improve reuse, interoperability and cooperation among metadata modelers. The model is standardised in ISO 24622-1 and ISO 24622-2. The serialization is typically in XML. Metadata in this format are often distributed via OAI-PMH. The definition of data categories is provided externally, for example by linking to or the Clarin Concept Registry.
LIDO is an XML schema intended for delivering metadata, for use in a variety of online services, from an organization’s online collections database to portals of aggregated resources, as well as exposing, sharing, and connecting data on the web. Its strength lies in its ability to support the typical range of descriptive information about objects of material culture. It can be used for all kinds of objects, e.g., art, architecture, cultural history, history of technology, and natural history. LIDO supports multilingual application environments. Being an application of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM), LIDO is the result of a collaborative effort of international stakeholders in the museum sector, starting in 2008, to create a common solution for contributing cultural heritage content to portals and other repositories of aggregated resources. LIDO is maintained under the patronage of CIDOC - ICOM International Committee for Documentation.